Motorcycle Accident In-Depth Study (MAIDS)

Published on 8 July 2004 by Gill

The increasing role of Powered Two Wheelers (PTWs) in transport policy for sustainable mobility, particularly their potential benefits for congestion and cost of urban transport require solutions for reducing PTW's riders fatalities in Western Europe.

PTW riders form one of the most vulnerable groups of road users and road accidents involving injuries to them are a major social concern. It is therefore essential that all parties work together to understand and further improve the safety of this valuable mode of transport.

In order to better understand the nature and causes of PTW accidents, the Association of European Motorcycle Manufacturers (ACEM) with the support of the European Commission and other partners conducted an extensive in-depth study of motorcycle and moped accidents during the period 1999-2000 in five sampling areas located in France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Spain.

The methodology developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for on-scene in-depth motorcycle accident investigations was used by all five research groups in order to maintain consistency in the data collected in each sampling area.

A total of 921 accidents were investigated in detail, resulting in approximately 2000 variables being coded for each accident. The investigation included a full reconstruction of the accident ; vehicles were inspected; witnesses to the accident were interviewed; and, subject to the applicable privacy laws, with the full cooperation and consent of both the injured person and the local authorities, pertinent medical records for the injured riders and passengers were collected. From these data, all the human, environmental and vehicle factors, which contributed to the outcome of the accident were identified.

To provide comparative information on riders and PTWs that were not involved in accidents in the same sample areas, data was collected in a further 923 cases. The collection technique was specifically developed to meet the circumstances of this study and is commonly referred to as an exposure or case-control study . This exposure information on non-accident involved PTW riders was essential for establishing the significance of the data collected from the accident cases and the identification of potential risk factors in PTW accidents. For example, if 20% of non-accident involved PTWs in the sampling area were red, it would be significant if 60% of those PTWs involved in an accident were reported to be red, suggesting that there is an increased risk of riding a red PTW. On the other hand, if none of the PTWs in the accident sample were red, it would be an interesting finding, needing further study.

Register to view and download full MAIDS report here or contact

The MAIDS project total cost is of 2.500.000 EURO. ACEM was the co-ordinator of the project and responsible for the definition of the project strategy, the global direction of the project and the definition of suitable dissemination measures. ACEM was also the main financial contributor, together with the European Commission.

But the completion of the MAIDS study would not have been possible without the support and help from the following organisations.

Last revised/updated 27/09/04